Casting Spells:


Whether a spell is arcane or divine, and whether a character prepares spells in advance or chooses them on the spot, casting a spell works the same way.

Choosing a Spell:
First you must choose which spell to cast. If you’re a cleric or wizard, you select from among spells prepared earlier in the day and not yet cast (see Preparing Spells).

If you’re a favored or sorcerer, you can select any spell you know, provided you are capable of casting spells of that level or higher.

To cast a spell, you must be able to speak (if the spell has a verbal component), gesture (if it has a somatic component), and manipulate the material components or focus (if any). Additionally, you must concentrate to cast a spell.

If a spell has multiple versions, you choose which version to use when you cast it. You don’t have to prepare (or learn, in the case of a chosen or sorcerer) a specific version of the spell.

Once you’ve cast a prepared spell, you can’t cast it again until you prepare it again. (If you’ve prepared multiple copies of a single spell, you can cast each copy once.) If you’re a chosen or sorcerer, casting a spell counts against your daily limit for spells of that spell level, but you can cast the same spell again if you haven’t reached your limit.

Concentration:
To cast a spell, you must concentrate. If something interrupts your concentration while you’re casting, you must make a Fortitude saving throw or lose the spell. The more distracting the interruption and the higher the level of the spell you are trying to cast, the higher the DC is. If you fail the save, you lose the spell just as if you had cast it to no effect.

Injury:
If while trying to cast a spell you take damage from an attack, you must make a Fortitude saving throw (DC 5 + half the points of damage taken + the level of the spell you’re casting). If you fail the check, you lose the spell without effect. The interrupting event strikes during spellcasting if it comes between when you start and when you complete a spell (for a spell with a casting time of 1 full round or more) or if it comes in response to your casting the spell (such as an attack of opportunity provoked by the spell or a contingent attack, such as a readied action).

Vigorous Motion:
If you are riding on a moving mount, taking a bouncy ride in a wagon, on a small boat in rough water, below-decks in a storm-tossed ship, or simply being jostled in a similar fashion, you must make a Fortitude saving throw (DC 15 + the level of the spell you’re casting) or lose the spell.

Caster Level:
A spell’s power often depends on its caster level, which for most spellcasting characters is equal to your class level in the class you’re using to cast the spell.

You can cast a spell at a lower caster level than normal, but the caster level you choose must be high enough for you to cast the spell in question, and all level-dependent features must be based on the same caster level.

In the event that a some special ability provides an adjustment to your caster level, that adjustment applies not only to effects based on caster level (such as range, duration, and damage dealt) but also to your caster level check to overcome your target’s spell resistance and to the caster level used in dispel checks (both the dispel check and the DC of the check).

Caster Level Checks:
To make a caster level check, roll 1d20 and add your caster level (in the relevant class). If the result equals or exceeds the DC (or the spell resistance, in the case of caster level checks made for spell resistance), the check succeeds.

Spell Failure:
If you ever try to cast a spell in conditions where the characteristics of the spell cannot be made to conform, the casting fails and the spell is wasted.

Spells also fail if your concentration is broken and might fail if you’re wearing armor while casting a spell with somatic components.

The Spell’s Result:
Once you know which creatures (or objects or areas) are affected, and whether those creatures have made successful saving throws (if any were allowed), you can apply whatever results a spell entails.

Combining Magical Effects:
Spells or magical effects usually work as described, no matter how many other spells or magical effects happen to be operating in the same area or on the same recipient. Except in special cases, a spell does not affect the way another spell operates. Whenever a spell has a specific effect on other spells, the spell description explains that effect. Several other general rules apply when spells or magical effects operate in the same place:

Stacking Effects:
Spells that provide bonuses or penalties on attack rolls, damage rolls, saving throws, and other attributes usually do not stack with themselves. More generally, two bonuses of the same type don’t stack even if they come from different effects.

Different Bonus Names:
The bonuses or penalties from two different spells stack if the modifiers are of different types. A bonus that isn’t named stacks with any bonus.

Same Effect More than Once in Different Strengths:
In cases when two or more identical spells are operating in the same area or on the same target, but at different strengths, only the best one applies.

Same Effect with Differing Results:
The same spell can sometimes produce varying effects if applied to the same recipient more than once. Usually the last spell in the series trumps the others. None of the previous spells are actually removed or dispelled, but their effects become irrelevant while the final spell in the series lasts.

One Effect Makes Another Irrelevant:
Sometimes, one spell can render a later spell irrelevant. Both spells are still active, but one has rendered the other useless in some fashion.

Multiple Mental Control Effects:
If a creature is under the mental control of two or more creatures, it tends to obey each to the best of its ability, and to the extent of the control each effect allows. If the controlled creature receives conflicting orders simultaneously, the competing controllers must make opposed Charisma checks to determine which one the creature obeys.

Spells with Opposite Effects:
Spells with opposite effects apply normally, with all bonuses, penalties, or changes accruing in the order that they apply. Some spells negate or counter each other. This is a special effect that is noted in a spell’s description.

Instantaneous Effects:
Two or more spells with instantaneous durations work cumulatively when they affect the same target.

Preparing Spells:
A wizard/cleric’s level limits the number of spells they can prepare and cast. Their high ability scores might allow them to prepare a few extra spells. They can prepare the same spell more than once, but each preparation counts as one spell toward their daily limit.

Rest:
To prepare their daily spells, a wizard/cleric must first sleep for 8 hours. The wizard/cleric does not have to sleep for every minute of the time, but they must refrain from movement, combat, spellcasting, skill use, conversation, or any other fairly demanding physical or mental task during the rest period. If their rest is interrupted, each interruption adds 1 hour to the total amount of time they have to rest in order to clear their mind, and they must have at least 1 hour of uninterrupted rest immediately prior to preparing their spells. If the character does not need to sleep for some reason, they still must have 8 hours of restful calm before preparing any spells.

Recent Casting Limit/Rest Interruptions:
If a wizard/cleric has cast spells recently, the drain on their resources reduces their capacity to prepare new spells. When they prepare spells for the coming day, all the spells they have cast within the last 8 hours count against their daily limit.

Preparation Environment:
To prepare any spell, a wizard/cleric must have enough peace, quiet, and comfort to allow for proper concentration. The wizard/cleric’s surroundings need not be luxurious, but they must be free from overt distractions. Exposure to inclement weather prevents the necessary concentration, as does any injury or failed saving throw the character might experience while studying. Wizards/clerics also must have access to their spellbook/holy symbol to study from/meditate with.

Spell Preparation Time:
After resting, a wizard/cleric must study their spellbook/meditate with their holy symbol to prepare any spells that day. If they want to prepare all their spells, the process takes 1 hour. Preparing some smaller portion of their daily capacity takes a proportionally smaller amount of time, but always at least 15 minutes, the minimum time required to achieve the proper mental state.

Spell Selection and Preparation:
Until they prepare spells, the only spells a wizard/cleric has available to cast are the ones that they already had prepared from the previous day and has not yet used. During the study period, she chooses which spells to prepare. If a wizard/cleric already has spells prepared (from the previous day) that she has not cast, she can abandon some or all of them to make room for new spells.

When preparing spells for the day, a wizard/cleric can leave some of these spell slots open. Later during that day, they can repeat the preparation process as often as they like, time and circumstances permitting. During these extra sessions of preparation, the wizard/cleric can fill these unused spell slots. She cannot, however, abandon a previously prepared spell to replace it with another one or fill a slot that is empty because she has cast a spell in the meantime. That sort of preparation requires a mind fresh from rest. Like the first session of the day, this preparation takes at least 15 minutes, and it takes longer if the wizard prepares more than one-quarter of their spells.

Spell Slots:
The various character class tables show how many spells of each level a character can cast per day. These openings for daily spells are called spell slots. A spellcaster always has the option to fill a higher-level spell slot with a lower-level spell.

Preparing Chain Spells:
Some spells are known as Chain Spells. These spells grow stronger based on the spell slot they are put in. By preparing a chain spell in a slot of a higher level, the effect of the spell is increased. Just as a spellcaster can choose to fill a higher-level spell slot with a lower-level spell, they can choose to “under power” a chain spell (e.g. they could prepare a second level Energy Beam in a third level spell slot).

Prepared Spell Retention:
Once a wizard/cleric prepares a spell, it remains in their mind as a nearly cast spell until they use the prescribed components to complete and trigger it or until they abandon it.

Sorcerers and Favored:
Sorcerers and Favored cast spells, but they do not prepare their spells. A sorcerer/favored's class level limits the number of spells they can cast. Their high ability score might allow them to cast a few extra spells.

Daily Readying of Spells:
Each day, sorcerers and favored must focus their minds on the task of casting their spells. A sorcerer or favored needs 8 hours of rest (just like a wizard/cleric), after which they spend 15 minutes concentrating. During this period, the sorcerer/favored readies their mind to cast their daily allotment of spells. Without such a period to refresh themself, the character does not regain the spell slots they used up the day before.

Recent Casting Limit:
As with wizards and clerics, any spells cast within the last 8 hours count against the sorcerer’s or favored’s daily limit.

Sorcerers, Favored and Chain Spells:
Sorcerers and favored choose the level of their chain spells when casting them.

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Spell Descriptions:


The description of each spell is presented in a standard format. Each category of information is explained and defined below.

Name:
The first line of every spell description gives the name by which the spell is generally known.

School (Subschool):
Beneath the spell name is a line giving the school of magic (and the subschool, if appropriate) that the spell belongs to.

Almost every spell belongs to one of eight schools of magic. A school of magic is a group of related spells that work in similar ways.

Abjuration:
Abjurations are protective spells.

Divination:
Divination spells enable you to learn secrets long forgotten, to predict the future, to find hidden things, and to foil deceptive spells.

(Scrying):
A scrying spell creates an invisible magical sensor that sends you information. Unless noted otherwise, the sensor has the same powers of sensory acuity that you possess. This level of acuity includes any spells or effects that target you, but not spells or effects that emanate from you. However, the sensor is treated as a separate, independent sensory organ of yours, and thus it functions normally even if your senses are impaired.

Any creature can notice the sensor by making a DC 20 Perception check. The sensor can be dispelled as if it were an active spell.

Lead sheeting or magical protection (e.g. antimagic field) blocks a scrying spell, and you sense that the spell is so blocked.

Enchantment:
Enchantment spells alter how existing things work; this includes making someone stronger or changing how they think.

(Charm):
A charm spell changes how the subject views you, typically making it see you as a good friend.

(Compulsion):
A compulsion spell forces the subject to act in some manner or changes the way her mind works.

Evocation:
Evocation spells manipulate energy or tap an unseen source of power to produce a desired end. In effect, they create something out of nothing. Many of these spells produce spectacular effects, and evocation spells can deal large amounts of damage.

Illusion:
Illusion spells deceive the senses or minds of others. They cause people to see things that are not there, not see things that are there, hear phantom noises, or remember things that never happened.

(Glamer):
A glamer spell changes a subject’s sensory qualities, making it look, feel, taste, smell, or sound like something else, or even seem to disappear.

(Phantasm):
A phantasm spell creates a mental image that usually only the caster and the subject (or subjects) of the spell can perceive. This impression is totally in the minds of the subjects. It is a personalized mental impression (It’s all in their heads and not a fake picture or something that they actually see). Third parties viewing or studying the scene don’t notice the phantasm. All phantasms are mind-affecting spells.

Saving Throws and Illusions (Disbelief):
Creatures encountering an illusion usually do not receive saving throws to recognize it as illusory until they study it carefully or interact with it in some fashion.

A successful saving throw against an illusion reveals it to be false.

Necromancy:
Necromancy spells manipulate the power of death, unlife, and the life force. Spells involving undead creatures make up a large part of this school.

(Healing):
Certain divine necromancy spells heal creatures or even bring them back to life.

Translocation:
Translocation spells move objects from one place to another, be that slowly or instantly.

(Summoning):
A summoning spell instantly brings a creature or object to a place you designate. When the spell ends or is dispelled, a summoned creature is instantly sent back to where it came from, but a summoned object is not sent back unless the spell description specifically indicates this. A summoned creature also goes away if it is killed or if its hit points drop to 0 or lower. It is not really dead. It takes 24 hours for the creature to reform, during which time it can’t be summoned again.

When the spell that summoned a creature ends and the creature disappears, all the spells it has cast expire. A summoned creature cannot use any innate summoning abilities it may have.

(Teleportation):
A teleportation spell transports one or more creatures or objects a great distance. The most powerful of these spells can cross planar boundaries. Unlike summoning spells, the transportation is (unless otherwise noted) one-way and not dispellable.

Teleportation is instantaneous travel through the Astral Plane. Anything that blocks astral travel also blocks teleportation.

Transmutation:
Transmutation spells change the properties of some creature, thing, or condition.

(Creation):
A creation spell manipulates matter to create an object or creature in the place the spellcaster designates (subject to the limits noted above). If the spell has a duration other than instantaneous, magic holds the creation together, and when the spell ends, the created creature or object vanishes without a trace. If the spell has an instantaneous duration, the created object or creature is merely assembled through magic. It lasts indefinitely and does not depend on magic for its existence.

[Descriptor]:
Appearing on the same line as the school and subschool, when applicable, is a descriptor that further categorizes the spell in some way. Some spells have more than one descriptor.

Most of these descriptors have no game effect by themselves, but they govern how the spell interacts with other spells, with special abilities, with unusual creatures, with alignment, and so on.

A mind-affecting spell works only against creatures with an Intelligence score.

Level:
The next line of a spell description gives the spell’s level, a number between 0 and 9 that defines the spell’s relative power. This number is preceded by an abbreviation for the class whose members can cast the spell. A spell’s level affects the DC for any save allowed against the effect.

Names of spellcasting classes are abbreviated as follows: cleric Clr; favored Fav; sorcerer Sor; wizard Wiz.

Chain Spells (C):
Chain Spells can vary greatly in level. The listed level is the lowest level it can be cast at.

Components:
A spell’s components are what you must do or possess to cast it. The Components entry in a spell description includes abbreviations that tell you what type of components it has. Specifics for material components are given at the end of the descriptive text. Usually you don’t worry about components, but when you can’t use a component for some reason or when a material component is expensive, then the components are important.

Verbal (V):
A verbal component is a spoken incantation. To provide a verbal component, you must be able to speak in a strong voice. A gag spoils the incantation (and thus the spell). A spellcaster who has been deafened has a 20% chance to spoil any spell with a verbal component that he or she tries to cast.

Somatic (S):
A somatic component is a measured and precise movement of the hand. You must have at least one hand free to provide a somatic component. An arcane spellcaster who is wearing armor they are not proficient in can not cast any spell with a somatic component.

Material (M):
A material component is one or more physical substances or objects that are annihilated by the spell energies in the casting process.

Casting Time:
Most spells have a casting time of 1 standard action. Others take 1 round or more, while a few require only a free action.

A spell that takes 1 round to cast is a full-round action. It comes into effect just before the beginning of your turn in the round after you began casting the spell. You then act normally after the spell is completed.

A spell that takes 1 minute to cast comes into effect just before your turn 1 minute later (and for each of those 10 rounds, you are casting a spell as a full-round action, just as noted above for 1-round casting times). These actions must be consecutive and uninterrupted, or the spell automatically fails.

When you begin a spell that takes 1 round or longer to cast, you must continue the concentration from the current round to just before your turn in the next round (at least). If you lose concentration before the casting is complete, you lose the spell.

A spell with a casting time of 1 free action doesn’t count against your normal limit of one spell per round. However, you may cast such a spell only once per round. Casting a spell with a casting time of 1 free action doesn’t provoke attacks of opportunity.

You make all pertinent decisions about a spell (range, target, area, effect, version, and so forth) when the spell comes into effect.

Range:
A spell’s range indicates how far from you it can reach, as defined in the Range entry of the spell description. A spell’s range is the maximum distance from you that the spell’s effect can occur, as well as the maximum distance at which you can designate the spell’s point of origin. If any portion of the spell’s area would extend beyond this range, that area is wasted. Standard ranges include the following.

Personal:
The spell affects only you.

Touch:
You must touch a creature or object to affect it. A touch spell that deals damage can score a critical hit just as a weapon can. A touch spell threatens a critical hit on a natural roll of 20 and deals double damage on a successful critical hit. Some touch spells allow you to touch multiple targets. You can touch as many willing targets as you can reach as part of the casting, but all targets of the spell must be touched in the same round that you finish casting the spell.

Range Expressed in Feet:
Some spells have a range expressed in feet.

Aiming a Spell:
You must make some choice about whom the spell is to affect or where the effect is to originate, depending on the type of spell. The next entry in a spell description defines the spell’s target (or targets), its effect, or its area, as appropriate.

Target or Targets:
Some spells have a target or targets. You cast these spells on creatures or objects, as defined by the spell itself. You must be able to see or touch the target, and you must specifically choose that target. You do not have to select your target until you finish casting the spell.

If the target of a spell is yourself (the spell description has a line that reads Target: You), you do not receive a saving throw, and spell resistance does not apply. The Saving Throw and Spell Resistance lines are omitted from such spells.

Some spells restrict you to willing targets only. Declaring yourself as a willing target is something that can be done at any time (even if you’re flat-footed or it isn’t your turn). Unconscious creatures are automatically considered willing, but a character who is conscious but immobile or helpless (such as one who is bound, cowering, grappling, paralyzed, pinned, or stunned) is not automatically willing.

Some spells allow you to redirect the effect to new targets or areas after you cast the spell. Redirecting a spell is a move action that does not provoke attacks of opportunity.

Effect:
Some spells create or summon things rather than affecting things that are already present.

You must designate the location where these things are to appear, either by seeing it or defining it. Range determines how far away an effect can appear, but if the effect is mobile it can move regardless of the spell’s range.

Area:
Some spells affect an area. Sometimes a spell description specifies a specially defined area, but usually an area falls into one of the categories defined below.

Regardless of the shape of the area, you select the point where the spell originates, but otherwise you don’t control which creatures or objects the spell affects. The point of origin of a spell is always a grid intersection. When determining whether a given creature is within the area of a spell, count out the distance from the point of origin in squares just as you do when moving a character or when determining the range for a ranged attack. The only difference is that instead of counting from the center of one square to the center of the next, you count from intersection to intersection.

Line or Sphere:
Most spells that affect an area have a particular shape, such as a line or sphere.

A line-shaped spell shoots away from you in a line in the direction you designate. It starts from any corner of your square and extends to the limit of its range or until it strikes a barrier that blocks line of effect. A line-shaped spell affects all creatures in squares that the line passes through.

A sphere-shaped spell expands from its point of origin to fill a spherical area. Spheres may be bursts, emanations, or spreads.

Creatures:
A spell with this kind of area affects creatures directly (like a targeted spell), but it affects all creatures in an area of some kind rather than individual creatures you select. The area might be a spherical burst, a cone-shaped burst, or some other shape.

Many spells affect "living creatures," which means all creatures other than constructs and undead. Creatures in the spell’s area that are not of the appropriate type do not count against the creatures affected.

Objects:
A spell with this kind of area affects objects within an area you select (as Creatures, but affecting objects instead).

Other:
A spell can have a unique area, as defined in its description.

Line of Effect:
A line of effect is a straight, unblocked path that indicates what a spell can affect. A line of effect is canceled by a solid barrier. It’s like line of sight, except that it’s not blocked by fog, darkness, and other factors that limit normal sight.

You must have a clear line of effect to any target that you cast a spell on or to any space in which you wish to create an effect. You must have a clear line of effect to the point of origin of any spell you cast.

An otherwise solid barrier with a hole of at least 1 square foot through it does not block a spell’s line of effect. Such an opening means that the 5-foot length of wall containing the hole is no longer considered a barrier for purposes of a spell’s line of effect.

Duration:
A spell’s Duration entry tells you how long the magical energy of the spell lasts.

Timed Durations:
Many durations are measured in rounds, minutes, hours, or some other increment. When the time is up, the magic goes away and the spell ends. If a spell’s duration is variable the duration is rolled secretly (the caster doesn’t know how long the spell will last).

Instantaneous:
The spell energy comes and goes the instant the spell is cast, though the consequences might be long-lasting.

Permanent:
The energy remains as long as the effect does. This means the spell is vulnerable to dispel magic.

Concentration:
The spell lasts as long as you concentrate on it. Concentrating to maintain a spell is a standard action that does not provoke attacks of opportunity. Anything that could break your concentration when casting a spell can also break your concentration while you’re maintaining one, causing the spell to end.

You can’t cast a spell while concentrating on another one. Sometimes a spell lasts for a short time after you cease concentrating.

Subjects, Effects, and Areas:
If the spell affects creatures directly the result travels with the subjects for the spell’s duration. If the spell creates an effect, the effect lasts for the duration. The effect might move or remain still. Such an effect can be destroyed prior to when its duration ends. If the spell affects an area then the spell stays with that area for its duration.

Creatures become subject to the spell when they enter the area and are no longer subject to it when they leave.

Touch Spells and Holding the Charge:
In most cases, if you don’t discharge a touch spell on the round you cast it, you can hold the charge (postpone the discharge of the spell) indefinitely. You can make touch attacks round after round. If you cast another spell, the touch spell dissipates.

Some touch spells allow you to touch multiple targets as part of the spell. You can’t hold the charge of such a spell; you must touch all targets of the spell in the same round that you finish casting the spell.

Discharge:
Occasionally a spells lasts for a set duration or until triggered or discharged.

(D) Dismissible:
If the Duration line ends with "(D)," you can dismiss the spell at will. You must be within range of the spell’s effect and must speak words of dismissal, which are usually a modified form of the spell’s verbal component. If the spell has no verbal component, you can dismiss the effect with a gesture. Dismissing a spell is a standard action that does not provoke attacks of opportunity.

A spell that depends on concentration is dismissible by its very nature, and dismissing it does not take an action, since all you have to do to end the spell is to stop concentrating on your turn.

Saving Throw:
Usually a harmful spell allows a target to make a saving throw to avoid some or all of the effect. The Saving Throw entry in a spell description defines which type of saving throw the spell allows and describes how saving throws against the spell work.

Negates
The spell has no effect on a subject that makes a successful saving throw.

Partial
The spell causes an effect on its subject. A successful saving throw means that some lesser effect occurs.

Half
The spell deals damage, and a successful saving throw halves the damage taken (round down).

None
No saving throw is allowed.

Disbelief
A successful save lets the subject ignore the effect.

(object)
The spell can be cast on objects, which receive saving throws only if they are magical or if they are attended (held, worn, grasped, or the like) by a creature resisting the spell, in which case the object uses the creature’s saving throw bonus unless its own bonus is greater. (This notation does not mean that a spell can be cast only on objects. Some spells of this sort can be cast on creatures or objects.) A magic item’s saving throw bonuses are each equal to 2 + one-half the item’s caster level.

(harmless)
The spell is usually beneficial, not harmful, but a targeted creature can attempt a saving throw if it desires.

Saving Throw Difficulty Class:
A saving throw against your spell has a DC of 9 + the level of the spell + your relevant ability score (Intelligence for a wizard, Charisma for a cleric, or Wisdom for a sorcerer or favored). A spell’s level can vary depending on your class. Always use the spell level applicable to your class.

Succeeding on a Saving Throw:
A creature that successfully saves against a spell that has no obvious physical effects feels a hostile force or a tingle, but cannot deduce the exact nature of the attack. Likewise, if a creature’s saving throw succeeds against a targeted spell you sense that the spell has failed. You do not sense when creatures succeed on saves against effect and area spells.

Automatic Failures and Successes:
A natural 1 (the d20 comes up 1) on a saving throw is always a failure, and the spell may cause damage to exposed items. A natural 20 (the d20 comes up 20) is always a success.

Voluntarily Giving up a Saving Throw:
A creature can voluntarily forego a saving throw and willingly accept a spell’s result. Even a character with a special resistance to magic can suppress this quality.

Items Surviving after a Saving Throw:
Unless the descriptive text for the spell specifies otherwise, all magic items and all items carried or worn by a creature are assumed to survive a magical attack.  If an item is not carried or worn and is not magical, it does not get a saving throw. It simply is dealt the appropriate damage.

Spell Resistance:
Spell resistance is a special defensive ability. If your spell is being resisted by a creature with spell resistance, you must make a resistance break check (1d20 + the ability score you use to calculate save DC's) at least equal to the creature’s spell resistance for the spell to affect that creature. The defender’s spell resistance is like an Armor Class against magical attacks.

If a creature has more than one source of spell resistance, only the highest applies.

The Spell Resistance entry and the descriptive text of a spell description tell you whether spell resistance protects creatures from the spell. In many cases, spell resistance applies only when a resistant creature is targeted by the spell, not when a resistant creature encounters a spell that is already in place.

The terms "object" and "harmless" mean the same thing for spell resistance as they do for saving throws. A creature with spell resistance can voluntarily lower the resistance in order to be affected by a spell noted as harmless. In such a case, you do not need to make the resistance break check described above.

Descriptive Text:
This portion of a spell description details what the spell does and how it works. If one of the previous entries in the description included "see text," this is where the explanation is found.

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